is wellbutrin abusable germany viagra online bactrim uses std how to check my credit rating in ireland shop prednisone side glucophage kac mg canadian walmart drog abudhabi viagra price online payday personal loan lenders canada overight delivery viagra aerius metformin free 3 credit reports from 3 credit bureaus fixing increase credit score fast tablet cytotec pct without clomid lisinopril 2.5 mg good glucophage tinnitus nexium used treat metformin 1000mg 120 fabricante nexium 40mg purchase tricor a prescription prednisone 20 mg posologie xenical 120 mg ervaringen cheap zovirax pills viagra price tamilnadu nexium drug category credit score explained us free target credit protection canadian online cash advances valtrex muscle soreness aventis clomid 50mg metformin prices walgreens erection after ejaculation online chemist propecia viagra 25mg india strattera causes mania propecia price usa prednisone illegal uses credit silver prices history 10 years adderall nexium together metformin facial flushing london drugs viagra credit report bureaus phone numbers viagra 24 hour delivery cialis 48 hours delivery zoloft muscle relaxers taking prednisone 20 mg nexium 40 mg romania global credit & collection inc montreal medikamente levitra 20mg viagra discount drug pillole celebrex cytotec 200 tablet cialis 20 mg contrassegno cytotec uso dosis viagra beograd buy flagyl online legal free credit repair denver purple pills nexium buy rocaltrol you xenical drug price viagra pill australia bactrim forte 800 160mg buspar headache migraine echeck clomid online dexone pour grossir canadian livitra free online credit checks in australia viagra sales women credit repair company how to remove tax liens from your credit report augmentin plus 1000 synthroid 112 mcg used target free credit check online free credit report dapoxetine overnight delivery viagra anal use is fast cash advance are online payday loans legit buy veterinary bactrim prednisone 20mg gout teva amoxicillin 500 mg side effects 26 rosuvastatin sale us lasix bloeddruk non generic viagra how to improve check your credit score equifax metformin 3000 mg viagra mumbai pharmacy rapid cash payday loans reviews credit credit cards companies in canada augmentin for peptostreptococcus levothyroxine kamagra online mastercard us who are the hands down best credit repair company erythromycin 500 mg dosierung aviva credit rating downgrade viagra 50mg chats nolvadex canada buy cialis difference order actavis online guys using clomid prednisone 20mg spanish india shipping cialis buy phenergan overnight deliery glucophage xr 850 mg 3 bureau credit report transunion augmentin 375 mg alcohol buy cheap meclizine otc non prescription calais 500 mg diflucan buy claravis online priligy 60 mg costo www.cheap cealis compare generic cialis reliable overnight cialis how to use pilex ointment phenergan online buy biotechnica tadalifil protonix 20 mg buy levitra safety canada buy allegra d online propranolol anxiety disorder generic cialis from us pharmacy cafergot 1 100 mg moody us credit rating online cash student loan australia menopause and lexapro effect of buspar cialis cost mexico buy abilify online without rx viagra popular british websites buy xenical melbourne bula zovirax 200mg metacam kaufen synthroid 0.05 mg drug 800 mg viagra gold check and credit reporting yahoo inc phone number my free credit repair blogs generic propecia wholesale wellbutrin cause ocd lasix 200 mg iv splitting lexapro tablets indian viagra uk discount 150mg viagra valtrex versus acyclovir metformin und zyklus viagra curacao buy metronidazole from canada fibroid 100 mg clomid uday hussein viagra xenical tablet kullananlar crushed cialis how td canada trust credit check pfizer viagra 200 mg how to get my 3 credit reports annual free free credit report with scores for all three where to buy prometrium purchase xenical singapore clomid online generic medikament celebrex 100 mg orlistat capsules price india disulfiram 500 mg tablets diflucan 100 mg vademecum buy 1 mg propecia slc viagra gels cheap name brand cialis no prescription amoxil bd 875 generico viagra how 2 buy spain price viagra tony ferguson xenical metformin sugar tablet zithromax mg dosage liquid clomid online free experian credit scores alli pills recall cheap viagra goa what is a paid charge off on a credit report generic xenical bestellen 20 mg levitra viagra canada pharmacy cymbalta reviews cialis 20mg ellily how can i get aygestin does tadapox doxycilyne no description to buy vardenafil vs viagra buy 40mg cialis alternative buy viagra levitra schmelztablette preis generic viagra securetabs cipro causes gas cost iv nexium flagyl plus cipro fluconazol ohne rezept kaufen diflucan herxheimer generic line viagra certified credit repair counselor training alphapharm generic lexapro how can i get tenormin blood pressure biodramina zoloft getting fat buy viagra malta wellbutrin sr focus zoloft canada pharmacy does dsi does dsi solutions credit repair work generic cialis 36 hour levitra taking 40 mg abusing prednisone low cost celalise cialis 5 mg works kamagra 100 mg upustvo 150mg wellbutrin xenical 120 mg abnehmen doxycycline mg uti fusidic acid tetracycline lexapro in canada cabgolin over the counter medicine contains 3 credit score companies addresses cheapest price on vermox tablets purchase lisinopril 40 mg dapoxetine user reviews levitra india pharmacy zithromax 250 pfizer comprar generico viagra tetracycline order valtrex 50 mg fast delivery cialsi lisinopril basics plus prednisone 20 mg color where to buy provera and clomid online viagra prescription nsw propecia 0.25mg kullananlar buspar bodybuilding metformin constant nausea metformin drug indications use for tetracycline bactrim susp plm cialis generic 20mg promethazine codeine syrup uk lisinopril cause psoriasis viagra prescription code metformin drug family apply for capital one credit cards for bad credit propecia target customer viagra legally australia bactrim 400 80 mg tab buy levitra orodispersibile priligy billig kaufen priligy 30 mg tablets retail viagra prices metacam versus prednisone drug repositioning viagra sildenafil teva prijs ayurslim online cheap designer what are the mailing address of the 3 credit reporting companies lisinopril hydrochlorothiazide lupus free tenant credit check landlord buy albendazole canada order xenical lisinopril delivery how to check get your credit report canada ampicillin versus amoxicillin lisinopril hydrochlorothiazide tablets advance america payday loans fees order neurotin cod online business business credit check form template chase unsecured credit card credit repair sinemet online cheaper alternative take 2 levitra 10mg buy roche valium uk buy viagra greece buy deltasone prednisolone celadrin buy online canada credit repair washing machine reviews uk india female cialis the usdrugs cialis generic pantoprazole walmart buspar anxiety reviews kamagra 25 mg tablet wellbutrin cigarettes nausea is .5mg of propecia effective pil perancang marvelon cialis extended use viagra use reports metformin 500mg acheter du dermipred en ligne lasix drug classifications metformin milchprodukte compra cialis 5 mg viagra zolushka prednisone cause backache augmentin 875 bustine credit repair fast 37 days lowes cit business credit canada doxycycline hyc 100mg. no script erythromycin creme ausschlag instant payday loans cash advance online no credit check lisinopril 10 mg hinta lilly pills cialis buspar frequent urination buy nitroglycerin without prescription the new jersey fair credit reporting act levitra dosage drug amoxil 250 mg capsule wellbutrin diabetes mellitus propranolol user reviews priligy review uk payday loans with bad credit no credit check tetracycline uses dogs prednisone tablets dosage prices comparison levitra metformin bei hyperinsulinismus 20 mg clomid uk inderal retard mitis gyogyszer australian price viagra cialis 5mg opinie cat doxycycline tablets priligy 30 mg tablets cialis 5 mg vademecum diflucan prescription drug fico credit rating scale credit reports free each year uporaba tablet doxycycline clomid users support siver tablets viagra no credit bad credit online loans not payday loans uk suppliers of zyban viagra jelly drugs buy buspar cheap credit cards with bad credit score diflucan 150 mg opinie diflucan mercury drug generic line viagra cheap 84 cap xenical federal consumer credit protection act title 1 getting a free how do i get my credit report in canada viagra australia paypal free credit report experian report number access highest experian credit score personal free credit reports canada savoia cipro gerusalemme credit credit card repair forum uk sourced cialis cialis 20mg cijena propecia cheap price cep paulinia cipro brand generic purchase single viagra zovirax gsk india price lexapro 20 mg buy us viagra xenical price cheap levitra 20mg pdf pfizer lawsuits viagra credit free car repair advice forums 100 free credit report no credit card prednisone tablets diabetes blackmarket cilias generic valtrex doses cialis daily uk credit repair magic vs credit aid torrent metformin bp 500 mg nexium cap 40 mg buspar dosage webmd generic version valtrex amitriptyline topamax together buying lexapro online federal trade commission credit repair how to help yourself if drug classification amoxil generico di priligy generic viagra line viagra tabletes propecia price walgreens effexor versus zoloft cytotec online usa zoloft ultram together white viagra 100mg 200 mg prednisone daily payday loans fast bad credit payday loans cheap zovirax tablets nexium 40 price 700 sky blue credit repair login prednisolone tablets for sale cialis 60 mg bactrim tablet 30 tb wholesale generic micardis have viagra onlinein uk tsa credit monitoring services tsa hawley canadian pharmacy store com color cialis pill copy of credit report how to get free credit report from all 3 bureaus get celebrex free generic cialis 99cents buy sporanox no prescription zoloft drug tests cheap zoloft 100 mg levitra 20 mg 2 tablet dapoxetine cvs pharmacy via 24hcom erowid buspar experience professional best credit repair company come usare lasix online pharmacy colchicine vendita online viagra generic viagra store where to get free credit how to get a free credit report once a year pharmacy "on line" diflucan quanto costa kamagra price rupees bactrim cause fever kamagra aus spanien title iii consumer credit protection act credit repair free services for seniors in virginia prednisone generic for credit report for landlords to run zithromax dosering 500 mg vigrx vs viagra want to buy tretinoin diflucan price canada 150mg clomid pcos acomplia 20mg rimonabant levitra usa online info viagra forsale philippines viagra 50 mg etkileri usual dosage metformin generic depakote er cost 40 mg strattera effects cialis 10 mgs teens provera (modus medroxyprogesterone) viibryd versus wellbutrin cialis kaufen zithromax walmart price cialis 20 mg biverkningar credit repair services with bbb viagra online cyprus ranitidine no prescripton medications levitra jel 10 mg meclizine and buspar dosis lexapro 10 mg nausea zoloft 3800 mg cialis reviews viagra purchase singapore rx rx4u drugs hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg tablets buspar anticonvulsant nexium copayment canada cipla tadalafil 20mg lisinopril 10 mg ndc albenza, pinworm ohio georgia credit repair laws order tramadol with mastercard prandin from cananda www.pharmacyonline store credit repair companies in philadelphia generic viagra using mastercard buy cialis edrugstore zoloft cause constipation buy periactin pills free annual credit report experian cialis ontario canada lustral and cialis valtrex plus alcohol lexapro price list fast shipping fluconazole suspension ventolin inhaler for sale nexium esomeprazole tablets where can i buy flagyl cash loans rochester ny zoloft 50 mg indicazioni need 5000 bad credit loan how can i see my credit score for free with no credit card required problems using viagra betnovate-n for acne cialis how long to take effect tinnitus viagra viagra 100mg canada pharmacy levitra tablete forum valtrex 1000 mg 21 tablets wellbutrin hcl 150 mg xenical 42 cap 120 mg metformin asparagus how to get a bad credit loan from fha cialis canada wiki propranolol getting high cialis best buy viagra and superdrug experian average quick credit score uk clomid price pakistan levitra generic levitra prednisone generic deltasone shoppers drug cialis buspar venus xenical sus consecuencias buy cipro xr genericviagra4 over the counter celexa credit repair programs in delaware how to raise your credit how to fix your credit score fast and free nexium mups tablets augmentin chronic sinusitis generics for synthroid meloxicam street value potenzmittel kamagra kaufen
Log via Facebook
Sponsored Links
Robo Home Hardware Motion Nodes GVS introduction

Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation

In this series of tutorials I would like to give to cover a set of basic stimulation techniques that can be used in cybernetics for the human-machine integration.

Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation (GVS from now on) is a simple, safe and specific way to elicit vestibular reflexes. The vestibular systems is responsible for a fundamental function of our body: encoding head orientation and keep balance.

You might have experience some vertigo in the past, if you didn't I can tell you that having an infection of the vestibular ear is a very nasty sensation as you experience nausea for every small movement, resulting in most of the times vomit etc.

GVS was used for over a century as a means to discover and then look at the function of the vestibular system. The first scientist who discovered it was Johann Purkyne in his 1820 dissertation, reported that a galvanic current flowing through the head upset the balance and equilibrium.

After that Volta in 1790, playing with his newly invented battery almost electrocuted himself with the same technique experiencing "the sensation of an explosion inside the head, spinning and boiling of matter".
This was probably due to the use of a 30V Zn/Ag pile and we will see later that 30 V are over the safe limit of stimulation.

More recently with the work of Fitzpatrick the mechanisms behind the GVS effect are being unveiled. There are basically several ways to elicit the response:

  • bilater bipolar GVS
  • bilateral monopolar GVS
  • unilater monopolar GVS

First we need to know more about the vestibular system, I have used material available online (ScienceDirect) to write a compact introduction so that the reader doesn't have to google all the time.

If somebody thinks I have used some copyrighted material please do let me know.

Vestibular Anatomy

Known as balance organs of the inner ear, the previous termvestibularnext term organs serve this complex motor function at a largely subconscious level, but their role does not stop with balance. They contribute to a surprising range of brain functions, from the highest levels of consciousness to the most automatic reflexes. The value of the previous termvestibularnext term sensory system to brain functions such as perception of self and non-self motion, spatial orientation, navigation, voluntary movement, oculomotor control, and autonomic control, comes from their unique and complete description of head motion and orientation in three dimensions.

Two different previous termvestibularnext term organs, the otolith organs and semicircular canals, sense different types of acceleration. Two otolith sensors, the utricle and saccule, sense linear acceleration. Three semicircular canals, the anterior, posterior and horizontal canals, sense rotational movements. These two complimentary signals are necessary for the brain to understand the range of physical situations that we experience, probably the most fundamental of which is to work out which way is up.

Which way is up?

All terrestrial and aquatic animals need to know which way is up and, therefore, which way gravity acts, so it is not surprising that special graviceptive systems appear early in evolutionary history. A sense of the force of gravity and which way is up is with us at all times. This internal construction is based on multiple sensory sources, important among which are the previous termvestibularnext term organs. It provides our brains with a deep and special understanding of how the force of gravity moves things, from the fall of our body, as we lift a foot to take a step, to the fall of a ball during a game of cricket. In all of these situations, the brain predicts the trajectory of fall with startling accuracy.

The significance of this internal representation for predicting motion in gravity and its link to the previous termvestibularnext term system was recently shown by Indovina and colleagues. They displayed a ball moving in a visual scene that had strong cues to the up direction. Observers accurately predicted the flight and timing of the ball when the gravitational field was conventionally aligned with the visual scene. Yet when the gravitational field was reversed so that it acted upwards, observers made large prediction errors, even though the ball was subject to exactly the same acceleration. Furthermore, functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed that certain areas of the cerebral cortex were more active when the gravitational field was consistent with the visual scene than when it was reversed. These included areas that receive strong previous termvestibularnext term signals, pointing to a previous termvestibularnext term contribution to our internal representation of gravity.

The equivalence problem

The otolith organs seem ideally suited to sense the direction of gravity and signal directly which way is up. The otoliths are essentially masses supported on hair cells. Tilting the head causes the cilia to bend under the sideways component of the gravitational force on the masses. This modulates the firing of the sensory nerves connected to the hair cells. Different hair cells respond to bending in different directions so that the total signal from all hair cells defines the direction of gravity with respect to the skull. There is, however, a serious problem that Einstein explained with his equivalence principle: the effect of a gravitational field on a mass is indistinguishable from the effect of linear acceleration.

For example, consider the otolith organs of a person sitting in a bus. When the head is accelerated forward as the bus pulls away from the bus stop, the inertia of the otolith masses causes them to be left behind and to bend the cilia of the hair cells backward. This is also exactly what happens when the front of the bus tilts upwards on starting to climb a hill. Thus, the otolith sensors send the same signal for two different physical situations; linear acceleration and tilt in the gravitational field. On their own, the otolith organs cannot signal unequivocally which way is up.

Why distinguish tilt and acceleration?

To operate beyond ourselves and navigate the environment, we need to create a stable internal representation of external, earth-referenced space in which the position and movement of objects is independent of our own. A navigation system needs to be able to distinguish the two physical situations of tilt and linear acceleration to build an accurate internal map of our movements. Evidence for this is seen at the processing level of place cells in the hippocampus. These neurons, which code for spatial location as part of a navigation system, depend on previous termvestibularnext term information for their function.

Control of eye movement is probably the most overt example of how the previous termvestibularnext term system creates a stable representation of external space, in this case visual space. The previous termvestibularnext term system profoundly influences eye movements via the vestibulo-ocular reflex to stabilize the visual image on the retina in the face of head motion. When we fix our gaze on an object and our head moves, the previous termvestibularnext term organs detect that movement and produce a counter movement of the eyes to maintain the retinal image. Clockwise head tilt requires the eyes to rotate anticlockwise. Leftward acceleration requires a rightward horizontal shift of the eyes. These two situations, which stimulate the otolith organs identically, must be distinguished to generate appropriate eye movements.

The angular trick

It appears that the brain goes some way toward solving the equivalence problem by simultaneously listening to the messages from the other previous termvestibularnext term organs, the semicircular canals. Like the otolith organs, the hair cells of the semicircular canals respond when their cilia are bent. The difference is that when the head rotates in the plane of a canal, the enclosed fluid is left behind and exerts a pressure that deflects the hair cells. Thus, they respond specifically to angular acceleration of the head and not to gravity or linear acceleration.

Now when the head tilts, say to the right, the brain receives two previous termvestibularnext term signals. The otolith organs signal the static head-tilt, which could equally represent leftward linear acceleration, but the semicircular canals report the transient head-rotation. If the otolith signal results from leftward linear acceleration, the semicircular canals report nothing. Angelaki and colleagues have shown recently, by recording from neurons in the cerebellum in the previous termvestibularnext term nuclei of the brainstem, that the brain can tell apart tilt and linear acceleration by combining the otolithic and semicircular canal signals.

Bilateral bipolar GVS

Now that we know more about the vestibular system we need to find a way to stimulate it in a useful manner without implanting electrodes in our inner ear.
We only want to stick some electrodes on our skin avoiding any surgery: the GVS basically bypasses the transduction mechanism of the hair cells by exciting all the afferents
with a DC current stimulation between the mastoid processes.

It's a brute force stimulation approach where all the afferents are excited So what Volta discovered is that the net effect of such a general excitation is a strong body swing.

Results were summarized by Fritzpatrick the expert in this field with this nice figure.

With only 0.5mA, GVS produces a trunk roll and head at 1-2 deg/s2 ! With 1 mA, body angular roatation was 2-3 deg/s2 .

Fritpatrick developed a model of the semicircular canals and otolith organs to predict the effect of the GVS on the linear and angular acceleration vector ...
but enough talking let's experience ourselves !

How to build a simple GVS stimulator

As a preliminary prototype we are going to use a simple stimulator built with:

  • 9V battery source
  • H-bridge for switching voltage polarity
  • potentiometer for adjusting current flow

This is a minimalist setup BUT is not SAFE as we are assuming that:

  • skin's impedance is constant for the duration of the stimulation
  • we are lucky and there will be no short-circuits :-)

For a short experiment this is not a big problem but if you plan to have a long session the skin will change its impedance for many reasons including sweating, abrasion etc.
A simplified electrical model of the electrodes, skin, tissue system is illustrated here:

  • The boundary of electrodes and the skin is of special importance, because that is where the flow of electrons from the stimulator is transduced into the ion flow of the tissue. At the boundary of every metal-electrolyte interface there is a potential difference which is called cell potential. The model also contains a series RC suggested by Warburg, and the faradic leakage resistance Rf accounting for DC characteristics of the model
  • The skin can be modeled by a serial resistance Rs and a parallel Rp,Cp. Rp can be practically eliminated by removing the outermost layer of skin, the stratum corneum.
  • The deep tissue can be modeled by the resistive Rt, bulk tissue resistance. Because of the complexity of the model and the lots of contributing nonlinear physical factors it is very difficult to estimate the total impedance between the two electrodes, but for practical applications the impedance should be in the magnitude of 1 kOhm. However if the skin is not prepared, the total impedance can be several times higher.

The circuit we are going to use in the first tutorial (we will use a current feedback in the next one) is in Figure.

schematic

The main components of the circuit are:

  • 9 Volt battery supply
  • a H-bridge composed of 2x NPN irf7105 and PNP irf7105p mosfet  transistors
  • a potentiometer of 100 kOhm
  • 2 guard resistors of 150 Ohm
  • 2 opto isolators

If the electrodes are in the short-circuit condition and the potentiometer is at 0 Ohm a maximum current of about 2.4 mA will flow.

If your skin-electrode conductance is at about 400 Ohm and you keep the potentiometer at 0 Ohm there will be a current flow of about 1 mA.

Believe me if I tell you that with electro gel electrodes your skin resistance will never reach 400 Ohm so is better ALWAYS to keep the potentiometer at 100kOhm and decrease gradually to achieve the desired effect.

An LT Spice (free software) simulation circuit is available in the repository so that you can see what is going to happen if you change the parameters.
The opto isolators are not included as LT Spice complain about some floating point resistance (bah couldn't find any solution for that) so I have changed the opto couplers with a simple voltage source.
I have also included the library model for the irf7105 so make sure you place the corresponding lib in the LT Spice folder.

Placing electrodes

First we need to locate our mastoid bones as in Figure, if you touch the area below your ears is the bony spike.

Second we need to find some proper Gel electrodes, because I work with EEG I have used the Maxensor Ag/Agcl/Solid adhesive pre-gelled.

I also generally use some Electro Gel to moisture my skin and increase conductivity for a better "sensation" ghghghg.

Wireless GVS

I don't want to have a wired GVS but a wireless GVS! So I took my Jeenodes and decide to use a master-slave configuration.

The master jeenode is a basically a remote controller (like the one in your TV) which has 2 buttons: left for direct polarization and right for reverse polarization.

The master will decode the button press and send 3 possible actions to the slave:

  • CENTER: disable the H-bridge no polarization
  • LEFT: enable the H-bridge with a forward polarization
  • RIGHT: enable the H-bridge with a reverse polarization

The slave jeenode will then execute the command by activating the proper opto inputs.

All the documentation and code is available here:

This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it :robomotic/Wifi-GVS.git

If you want to support my research or you want to get the circuit already up and running,
I encourage you to buy my pcb in my shop.

The jeenode hardware looks like this:

Jeenode HW


How to use it

It is very important to follow this simple algorithm:

 

  1. check any short circuits
  2. apply the electrodes to your skin
  3. set the potentiometer at 100 KOhm
  4. try left and right control with closed eyes
  5. if you feel nothing decrease the potentiometer and start from 3
  6. if you start to feel a pull on the left or right direction
  7. stand up and try to walk straight
  8. give the remote to some friend and have fun

 

CAUTIONS:

  • do not use voltages bigger than 9 V
  • do not fiddle with the resistances unless you know what are you doing
  • do not short circuit the leads
  • use the stimulation for a short period of time
  • do not apply on animals or kids

Gvs Video Tutorial

Next tutorial

In the next tutorial we are going to build a current controlled stimulator.

Stay tuned.

Last Updated (Sunday, 28 November 2010 17:46)

 

Comments  

 
0 #20 buyphentramin-d.com 2015-03-16 08:53
It's actually a great and useful piece of information.I'm glad that you
simply shared this helpful info with us. Please keep uus up to date like this.
Thankms for sharing.
Quote
 
 
0 #19 biosynergy 2015-02-13 21:27
What's up to all, how is the whole thing, I think every one is getting more from this site, and your views are pleasant in favor of new viewers.
Quote
 
 
0 #18 2020 Tax Resolution 2015-01-19 02:22
I am not sure where you are getting your information, but great topic.
I needs to spend some time learning much more or understanding more.
Thanks for fantastic info I was looking for this information for my mission.
Quote
 
 
0 #17 Hair extensions 2015-01-08 05:03
Good Article!
Quote
 
 
0 #16 where can i buy 2015-01-07 06:17
I constantly spent my half an hour to read this weblog's articles or reviews everyday along with
a cup of coffee.
Quote
 
 
0 #15 customized 2014-12-25 16:16
Thank you for every other wonderful article.
The place else may just anybody get that type of info
in such a perfect way of writing? I have a presentation next week, and I am at the search for such
info.
Quote
 
 
0 #14 security systems 2014-12-22 04:39
Hello there, just became aware of your blog through Google, and
found that it's really informative. I'm gonna
watch out for brussels. I'll be grateful if you continue this in future.
A lot of people will be benefited from your writing. Cheers!
Quote
 
 
0 #13 ankara bilişim 2014-12-12 22:48
What's up i am kavin, its my first time to commenting anywhere, when i read this piece of
writing i thought i could also create comment due to this brilliant paragraph.
Quote
 
 
0 #12 eppqcjtaoq 2014-12-02 01:30
ttwermbc, ybihofgwvf , rgpaarfdla: http://www.yxektwvmqb.com/, http://www.ghsgcuvtzg.com/ ybihofgwvf
Quote
 
 
0 #11 https://www.fiverr. 2014-11-29 05:54
I'd like to find out more? I'd love to find out some additional information.

Feel free to surf to my web-site where to buy social
accounts (https://www.fiverr.com/s/5jlrzn: https://www.fiverr.com/s/5jlrzn)
Quote
 

Add comment


Security code
Refresh